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广东专插本公共英语必备语法

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  一、时态、语态

  时态、语态需要掌握的要点:

  1.表达将来时的形式:

  (1)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如:

  I’ll tell him when you will ring again. 我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

  比较:I’ll tell him when you ring again.你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)

  (2)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:

  See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn’t know the answer to last time.

  (include 不能用will include或其他形式)

  2.完成时是时态测试的重点,注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语:

  (1)by/between/up to/till +过去时间、since、by the time/when +表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。如:We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door.

  Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced.

  (表示1919年时已发生的情况)

  (2)by +将来时间、by the time/ when +谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。如:

  By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks.

  I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

  (3)by now、since +过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时, 但在it is +具体时间since/before这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:

  The changes that had taken place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century.

  It is four years since John left school.

  (4)在It is the +序数词/形容词最高级+that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:

  It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation.

  (5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。

  3.完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。如:

  The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened.

  时态、语态答题思路:

  (1)先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态,然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语,缩小选择范围,进而选出正确答案;

  (2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。

  二、不定式

  1.不定式做主语

  (1)引导逻辑主语的介词:不定式的逻辑主语一般由介词for引导,但下列表示人的性格行为特征的形容词做表语时, 不定式的逻辑主语则由of引导:

  absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind, thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel, selfish, lazy, wicked, wrong。如:

  Experts say walking is one of the best ways for a person to stay healthy.

  It’s clever of you to have invented such a device.

  (2)不定式做主语补足语:

  掌握常用不定式做主语补足语的句型。注意不定式表示的动作发生的时间,并采用相应形式。如:

  be said / reported / thought / believed / known / supposed + to do sth.

  2.不定式做宾语

  掌握要求接不定式做宾语的动词:

  afford, arrange, attempt, claim, desire, determine, expect, fail, guarantee, endeavor, intend, pledge, pretend, resolve, request, swear, tend, venture。如:

  Even though the children pretended to be asleep, the nurses were not deceived when they came into the room.

  3.不定式做定语

  (1)被修饰的名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或next, last, only, not a, the, very等限定词时,该名词用不定式做定语。如:the first woman to set foot on the moon 第一个登上月球的女性

  (2)如果其动词要求不定式做宾语,相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如:

  tendency to do→tend to do, decision to do→decide to do

  This book is an attempt to help you use English and recognize how it is used.

  (3)如果其形容词形式要求接不定式做补语,相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如:

  ambition to do “干……的雄心”→be ambitious to do“有雄心干……”

  curiosity to do “对……的好奇心”→be curious to do“对……好奇”

  ability to do“做……的能力”→able to do“有能力做……”

  According to Darwin, random changes that enhance a species’ ability to survive are naturally selected and passed on to succeeding generation.

  (4)表示方式、原因、时间、机会、权利等名词用不定式做定语,这些名词包括:

  way, method, reason, time, place, chance, occasion, opportunity, evidence, power, right, movement, drive (运动),effort等。如:I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus.

  We appreciate your efforts to bring about a comprehensive solution to the existing problem.

  (5)不定代词something, nothing, little, much, a lot习惯上用不定式做定语。如:

  Though we have made great progress, there is still much to be improved.

  4.不定式做状语

  不定式做状语主要表示目的、程度、结果、方式。

  (1)in order to(do), so as to(do)结构引导目的状语,so as to不能置于句首。如:

  (2)so…as to, such…as to, enough…to, too…to结构做程度状语。如:

  The solution works only for couples who are self-employed, don’t have small children and get along well enough to spend most of their time together.

  The vocabulary and grammatical differences between British and American English are so trivial and few as hardly to be noticed.

  (3)不定式做结果状语只能出现在句子的末尾,表示不愉快的结果,有时用only加强语气。

  常见的不定式动词有find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce等。如:

  Greatly agitated, I rushed to the apartment and tried the door, only to find it locked.

  (4)not/never too… to, too… not to, but/only too…to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意义。如:

  I am only too pleased to hear from you further. 能再听到你的消息,我太高兴了。

  三、动名词

  1.必须接动名词做宾语的动词

  牢记下列要求接动名词做宾语的动词:

  acknowledge, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, admit, confess, consider, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, favor, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, justify, mention, pardon, practice, postpone, recall,recollect,risk, resist, suggest, tolerate。如:

  I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

  2.动名词做介词短语

  考生尤其要识别下列短语中的to是介词,不是不定式符号:

  object to, resort to, react to, contribute to, look forward to, be accustomed to, be committed to, be exposed to, be subjected to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, be opposed to, be reconciled to, be contrary to, be (get) used to, come close to, get down to, give oneself up to, prefer…to, see to, set to, take to, in addition to, with regard to, with a view to, on the way to。如:

  四、分词

  分词起形容词和副词的作用,在句中做定语或状语。在概念上应清楚:

  ● 现在分词表示主动,表示动作在进行。

  ● 过去分词表示被动,表示动作结束了的状态或结果。

  1.分词做定语,弄清现在分词与过去分词的区别

  分词短语做定语相当于省略了的定语从句,考生应掌握:

  (1)现在分词与被修饰词之间具有主动意义。如:

  It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world.(相当于the changes which take place...)

  There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.(相当于which gave...)

  How many of us attending, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion?

  (相当于How many of us who will attend...)

  (2)过去分词与被修饰词之间具有被动意义。如:

  Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered. (相当于…recapture of the port which had been announced…)

  Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone added to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out. (相当于…each new phone which is added to…)

  The author gave a detailed description based on his personal observation of nature.

  (相当于…description which was based on…)

  (3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义:

  deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如:

  an escaped prisoner一个逃犯 a retired worker一位退休工人

  a faded curtain一个褪了色的窗帘 a newly arrived student一个新来的学生

  2.分词做状语,注意区分分词的一般式与完成式

  (1)表示时间,多置于句首,注意如果分词表示的动作的时间先于谓语动词,要用完成式。如:

  Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前发生)

  (2)表示原因,置于句首句尾均可,根据情况有时要用完成式,有时用一般式。如:

  He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being considered insufficiently popular with all members.

  There seemed little hope that the explorer, having been deserted in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.

  (3)表示伴随、方式,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:

  Helen borrowed my dictionary the other day saying that she would return it soon.

  Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely lost to the outside world.

  (4)表示结果,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:The city found itself in a crisis situation last summer when the air conditioning on dozens of the new buses broke down, them unusable.

  (5)表示补充说明(同位),置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each making one major point in contrast with the other.

  Ford tried dividing the labor, each worker assigned a separate task.

  3.分词的独立主格结构

  分词的逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则分词短语要有自己的逻辑主语,称为分词独立主格结构。分词独立主格结构只是句子的一个部分。如:

  All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.

  Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.

  五、非谓语动词的其他考点

  1.接不定式或动名词做宾语都可以,但在意思上有区别的动词的用法

  mean to do想要(做某事) propose to do 打算(做某事)

  mean doing意味(做某事) propose doing建议(做某事)

  forget to do忘记(要做的事) remember to do记得(要做某事)

  forget doing忘记(已做的事) remember doing记得(已做过的事)

  go on to do继而(做另一件事) stop to do停下来去做另一件事

  go on doing继续(做原来的事) stop doing停止正在做的事

  regret to do(对将要做的事)遗憾 regret doing(对已做过的事)后悔

  2.不定式的习惯用法

  句型:cannot help but do cannot but do

  cannot choose but do can do nothing but do

  have no choice/alternative but to do

  上述句型的意思接近,即“不得不做”、“不禁做”、“不由自主地做”、“不能不做”、“只能做”。如:

  Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.

  When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift.

  3.动名词的习惯用法

  句型:be busy/active doing sth. have difficulty/trouble/problem doing sth.

  It’s no good/use/picnic doing sth. have a good/great/wonderful time doing sth.

  spend/waste time doing sth. There is no point/sense/harm/ use doing sth.

  cannot help doing sth. There is no doing sth.

  I know it isn’t important but I can’t help thinking about it.

  Alice was having trouble controlling the children because there were so many of them.

  There is no use crying over spilt milk.

  4.there be 非谓语动词的用法

  (1)做宾语时取决于谓语动词的持续要求。如:

  The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams.(expect要求接不定式做宾语)

  (2)做目的状语或程度状语时用for there to be,做其他状语用there being。如:

  For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present. (for there to be…在句中做目的状语)

  It isn’t cold enough for there to be a frost tonight, so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely.

  (for there to be…在句中做程度状语)

  There being no further questions, we’ll stop here today. (there being…做原因状语)

  (3)引导主语用for there to be。如:It is unusual for there to be no late comers today.

  (4)做除for外的介词宾语,用there being。如:

  He would always ignore the fact of there being such a contradiction in his inner thought.

  六、虚拟语气

  1.主从句谓语动词的时态

  (1)掌握主从句谓语动词的规范搭配:


主句

从句

与现在事实相反

would/情态动词过去式+do

were (不分人称)/did

与过去事实相反

would/情态动词过去式+have done

had done

与将来事实相反

would/情态动词过去式+do

should do / were to do


  如:If the doctor had been available, the child could not have died.

  There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, should there be a sudden loud noise.

  (2)区分主从句表示的不同时间概念:

  主从句谓语动词所指时间不同,这叫做错综时间条件句,动词形式应根据实际情况来调整。如:

  Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.

  (主句与现在事实相反,从句与过去事实相反)

  Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now.

  (主句与现在事实相反,从句与过去事实相反)

  (3)识别事实和假设混合句:

  Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time. (句子前半部分为假设情况,而“父母病了”是事实)

  I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week. (前半部分为假设,后半部分是事实)

  2.名词性从句的虚拟形式

  名词性从句是指宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。从句的谓语动词需用(should+)动词原形表示虚拟。考生应熟悉:

  (1)下列动词做谓语时,that宾语从句中的动词用虚拟形式:

  desire, advise, recommend, command, direct, order, ask, demand, request, require, insist, maintain, move, propose, prefer, urge, vote。如:

  In the past men generally preferred that their wives work in the home.

  I move that he be discharged for his serious mistake.

  (2)下列形容词和分词做表语或补语时,that主语从句中动词用虚拟形式:

  advisable, desirable, insistent, preferable, urgent, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, essential, imperative, important, necessary, obligatory, possible, probable, proper, vital, advised, arranged, commanded, demanded, desired, ordered, proposed, recommended, requested, required, suggested。如:

  The board deem it urgent that these files should be printed right away.

  It is essential that all these figures be checked twice.

  (3)下列名词接同位语从句或表语从句时,从句中动词用虚拟形式:

  insistence, preference, recommendation, suggestion, proposal, motion, desire, requirement, request, order, necessity, importance, regulation, rule, resolution, understanding。如:

  John Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.

  They keep telling us it is of utmost importance that our representative be sent to the conference on schedule.

  3.含蓄虚拟条件句的谓语动词形式

  含蓄虚拟语气是指假设条件不通过if从句表达,而是暗含在其他结构中。考生应熟悉:

  (1)连词but, but that, or, or else;副词otherwise, unfortunately等表示转折假设。如:

  A safety analysis would have identified the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.

  Victor obviously doesn’t know what’s happened; otherwise he wouldn’t have made such a stupid remark.

  (2)介词短语暗含假设条件,常用的有:without, but for, under more favorable conditions等。如:

  But for the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday.

  (3)intended/meant/hoped/wished/plann或was/were +不定式完成式或had intended/meant/planned/hoped/wished

  +不定式一般式暗示虚拟语气。如:I intended to have called on you, but I was busy at that time.

  (4)情态动词完成式暗示虚拟语气。如:I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t.

  4.常用虚拟形式的句型

  (1)从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式表示虚拟的句型:

  would rather would as soon as though suppose…

  had rather would sooner as if supposing…

  If only… It is (high) time that…(从句中动词只用过去式)

  如:His wife would rather they didn’t talk about the matter any more.

  I’d rather you went by train, because I can’t bear the idea of your being in an airplane in such bad weather.

  If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.

  My father always talks as though he were addressing a public meeting.

  (2)If it were not for… (与现在事实相反)

  If it had not been for… (与过去事实相反) 相当于but for。如:

  If it had not been for his help (= but for his help), we would not have succeeded.

  (3)If only…谓语动词视情况选用适当的形式。如:

  If only the committee would approve the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.

  (4)lest/for fear that/in case 从句谓语用(should+)动词原形。如:

  The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.

  (5)whether…or…有时谓语用be的原形,引导让步虚拟从句,这种用法经常采用倒装结构。如:

  Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.

  The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

  七、情态动词

  注意情态动词完成式的用法有两方面的含义:

  1.表示已经发生的情况

  (1)must have +过去分词,表示对已发生情况的肯定推测,译为“(昨天)一定……”。如:

  My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

  (2)can’t/couldn’t have +过去分词,表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为“(昨天)一定没……”。 如:

  Mary couldn’t have received my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

  (3)may/might have +过去分词,表示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测,或事实上根本没发生,译为“也许……”。如:At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.

  2.表示虚拟语气

  (1)needn’t have+过去分词,表示做了不必做的事,译为“其实没必要……”。如:

  As it turned out to be a small house party, we needn’t have dressed up so formally.

  (2)should /should not have +过去分词,表示应该做某事但实际上未做,或本不应该做但实际上做了, 译为“本(不)应该……”。如:I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.

  (3)ought to have+过去分词,表示动作按理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为“该……”,与should的完成式含义类似。如:

  The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke.

  (4)could have+过去分词,表示过去本来可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。如:

  What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.

  (5)may/might have + 过去分词,表示过去可以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)也许会……”。如:

  It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.

  3.几个情态动词常考的句型

  (1)may/might (just) as well“不妨,最好”,与had better相近。如:

  Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.

  (2)cannot/can’t…too… “越……越好,怎么也不过分”。注意这个句型的变体cannot…over…。如:

  You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.

  The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be overemphasized.

  (3)usedn’t或didn’t use to为used to (do)的否定式。

  (4)should 除了“应该”一层意思外,大纲还规定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如:

  I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that.

  八、形容词、副词及其比较级

  1.形容词的句法功能

  形容词在句中做定语、表语和主语。考生应注意:

  (1)以 “a” 开头的形容词如alone, alike, asleep, awake等不能做前置定语,可做表语或后置定语。

  (2)某些以副词词缀 “-ly” 结尾的词是形容词,如friendly, leisurely, lovely等。

  (3)下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语:remain, keep, become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。

  2.考比较级时,考生应把握

  (1)形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较连词对应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较级的结构。如:

  Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often as good as, or better than an actual performance.

  On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.

  (2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念。如:

  The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half that of last year’s.

  Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of Dickens far more exciting than Thackeray’s.

  (3)比较级的修饰语如 a little, a lot, the, any, even, far, hardly, lots, much, rather,还有表示倍数比较的词等,他们的位置是:修饰语+as…as…, 或修饰语+more…than…。如:

  Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills seven times more people each year than automobile accidents.

  “Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?” “No, I would gladly have paid twice as much for it.”

  (4)下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比较概念:

  inferior,minor,senior,prior,prefer to,superior,major,junior,preferable,differ from,compared with,in comparison with,different from,rather than。如:Their watch is superior to all the other watches on the market.

  3.最高级形式应注意的问题

  比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用:

  any other +单数名词

  the other +复数名词

  the others

  anyone/anything else

  上述词是用来将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。

  4.有关比较级的特殊句型

  (1)not so much…as…与其说……不如说……

  The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates as a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

  (2)no/not any more…than…两者一样都不……The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

  There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.

  (3)no /not any less…than…两者一样都……She is no less beautiful than her sister.

  (4)just as…so….正如……,……也……(用倒装结构)Just as the soil is a part of the earth, so is the atmosphere.

  九、平行结构

  1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如:

  It is better to die on one’s feet than to live on one’s knees.

  Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

  2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语。

  (1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如:

  We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style rather than in a personal style.

  For the new country to survive, let alone for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

  (2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。如:

  At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

  十、代词

  1.与所指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致

  如:Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect.

  It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.

  2.that的指代作用

  that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of。如:Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.

  No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

  3.one的指代作用

  one指代不确指的单数可数名词,复数为ones。the one 指代确指的单数可数名词。如:

  A good writer is one who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

  十一、主谓一致问题

  1.主语与谓语之间有定语从句或其他结构修饰,所以距离较远,考生易误认主语。如:

  The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the quality of the products.

  2.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。如:

  Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood.

  There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.

  3.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。如:

  Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.

  To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.

  4.主语带有(together/along)with, such as, as well as, accompanied by, including, rather than等附加成分, 谓语的数不受附加成分的影响。如:

  The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations.

  5.表示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数。

  6.某些固定结构中谓语的数:

  a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数

  many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数

  a number of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数

  the number of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数

  the majority of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数

  each/every +可数名词单数 谓语用单数

  neither/either of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数

  more than one +可数名词单数 谓语用单数

  one and a half +可数名词复数 谓语用单数

  the greater part of / a large proportion of / 50% of / one third of / plenty of / the rest of

  谓语的数与of后面的名词一致

  十二、倒装结构

  1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装

  never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。如:

  Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.

  Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

  2.以only修饰状语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装

  Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.

  3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装

  often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time。如:

  So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

  4.以下列副词开头的句子,句子的主谓要全部倒装

  (1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in, up, away, on。如:

  Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

  (2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then。如:

  Now is your turn. There goes the bell.

  5.让步从句的倒装

  (1)as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:

  Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

  (2)出现在句型be+主语+其他, come what may中。如:

  Our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.

  The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

  Come what may, I’ll be on your side.

  6.比较从句的倒装

  as, than引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。如:

  Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.

  Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

  十三、复合句——形容词性(定语)从句

  1.尤其要注意whose的用法

  whose在从句中做定语,修饰名词。所以,如果关系代词后面紧接的是名词,且关系代词又不在从句中做主语或宾语,那么,这个关系代词就应该是whose。如:

  2.介词 + which的用法

  如果从句中主宾成分齐全,考生便可考虑关系代词是否在从句中做状语,而状语通常用介词短语充当,于是可以得知,关系代词前面应有介词,再分析所给的选项,根据与名词的搭配作出正确选择。如:

  We are not conscious of the extent to which work provides the psychological satisfaction that can make the difference between a full and an empty life.

  3.as 与which用作关系代词的区别

  (1)as与the same, such, so, as等关联使用。如:As the forest goes, so goes its animal life.

  (2)as和which都可以引导非限定性定语从句,但as在句中的位置比较灵活,可出现在句首、句中、句末,而which只能出现在句末,尤其是当先行词是整个句子时。如:

  As is true in all institutions, juries are capable of making mistakes.

  As is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

  常见的这类结构有:as has been said before, as has been mentioned above, as can be imagined, as is known to all, as has been announced, as can be seen from these figures, as might/could be expected, as is often the case, as has been pointed out, as often happens, as will be shown等。

  4.关系代词that与which用于引导定语从句的区别

  (1)如果关系代词在从句中做宾语,用that, which都可以,而且可以省略;

  (2)先行词是不定代词anything, nothing, little, all, everything时,关系代词用that;

  (3)先行词由形容词最高级或序数词修饰或由next,last, only, very修饰时,用that;

  (4)非限定性定语从句只能用which引导;

  (5)关系代词前面如果有介词,只能用which。

  5.but做关系代词,用于否定句,相当于who…not, that…not

  这个结构的特点是主句中常有否定词或含有否定意义的词。如:

  There are few teachers but know how to use a computer.

  There is no complicated problem but can be solved by a computer.

  十四、复合句——名词性从句

  一个句子起名词的作用,在句中做主语、宾语/介词宾语、表语、同位语,那么这个句子就是名词性从句。

  1.what/whatever的用法

  考生应把握:what是关系代词,它起着引导从句并在从句中担当一个成分这两个作用。如:

  They lost their way in the forest, and what made matters worse was that night began to fall.

  (what既引导主语从句又在从句中做主语)

  Water will continue to be what it is today—next in importance to oxygen.

  (what既引导表语从句又在从句中做表语)

  2.whoever和whomever的区别

  whoever和whomever相当于anyone who,用主格与宾格取决于其在从句中做主语还是做宾语。如:

  They always give the vacant seats to whoever comes first. (whoever在从句中做主语)

  3.有关同位语从句的问题

  (1)引导词通常为that, 但有时因名词内容的需要,也可由whether及连接副词why, when, where,how引导。that不表示任何意义,其他词表示时间、地点、原因等。如:

  The problem, where I will have my college education, at home or abroad, remains untouched.

  (2)同位语从句有时与先行词隔开,注意识别。如:

  Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.

  4.whether与if在引导名词性从句时的区别

  (1)主语从句只能用whether引导;

  (2)whether一般多用于宾语从句的肯定式,而if引导的从句可以有否定式;

  (3)whether or not可以连在一起用,而if or not则不能,or not只能放在句末;

  (4)whether可以引导介词宾语从句,if则不能;

  (5)宾语从句提至谓语前面时,只能用whether引导;

  (6)在question, ask后面一般只用whether,question的同位语从句也用whether引导;

  (7)后接不定式时,只能用whether。

  5.动词believe, expect, fancy, imagine, suppose, think后的宾语从句如为否定式,一般将否定词转移到主句谓语上。

  十五、复合句——副词性(状语)从句

  副词在句中起状语作用,故如果起状语作用的部分为一个句子,那么该句便是副词性从句,也称状语从句。状语从句可细分为:时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、目的、结果、比较、方式等。

  状语从句的测试重点为:考查考生对主从句之间逻辑意义关系的把握,看其是否能选择正确的从属连词。

  1.条件状语从句的常考知识点

  (1)if与unless的用法。

  if和unless都是引导条件状语从句的连词,考生应尤其注意unless的用法,因为它表示反面条件,相当于if not“如果不”、“除非”。如:

  In debating, one must correct the opponent’s facts, deny the relevance of his proof, or deny that what he presents as proof, if relevant, is sufficient.

  (2)复合连词as long as,so long as,as far as,on condition that,in the event that;动词及分词provided(that),providing(that),given that, suppose/supposing(that),assuming,say等引导条件状语从句。如:

  You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you don’t mind taking the night train.

  Assuming he is diligent in his studies at ordinary times, he is sure to pass the test.

  In the event that she has not been informed, I will tell her. (如果……)

  You can go swimming on condition that you don’t go too far from the river bank. (如果……)

  Suppose it rained, we would still go. (假如……)

  Say it were true, what would you do about it? (假如……)

  (3)祈使句表示条件。如:Dress warmly, or else you’ll catch cold.

  Talk to anyone in the drug industry, and you’ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.

  2.让步状语从句的常考知识点

  (1)as 引导让步从句,要求用倒装结构,把强调的部分置于句首。如:

  Much as he likes her, he does get irritated with her sometimes.

  Humble as it may be, there is no place like home.

  (2)while引导让步从句。如:

  Everybody cheats a little, some psychologists say, while others insist that most people are basically honest and some wouldn’t cheat under any circumstances.

  (3)复合连接词for all that和分词granting/granted(that)引导让步从句。如:

  Granted you have made much progress, you should not be conceited.

  For all that computers can provide us with great help, they shouldn’t be seen as substitutes for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.

  3.时间状语从句的常考知识点

  (1)before表示汉语的 “只有/必须……才能”。如:

  New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they are fully accepted.

  (2)when引导时间从句时,如果出现在后半句,则表示“这/那时突然”。如:

  I have just started back for the house to change my clothes when I heard the voices.

  (3)when it comes to 是习惯用法,意为“当谈到……时”。如:

  Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true when it comes to classroom tests.

  (4)名词短语、介词短语each /every time, the moment/second/minute, in the time, by the time起连词作用。如:

  I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

  My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

  Mercury’s velocity is so much greater than the Earth’s that it completes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time it takes the Earth to complete one.

  (5)副词directly, immediately, instantly, now引导时间从句, 相当于as soon as。如:

  The policemen went into action directly they heard the alarm.

  4.原因状语从句的常考知识点

  (1)in that引导原因从句时,有时翻译成“是因为”、“就在于”。如:

  Advertising is distinguished from other forms of communication in that the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered.

  Criticism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps us to find and correct our mistakes.

  (2)now that表示 “既然” ; seeing that, considering表示“鉴于”、“考虑到”。如:

  Now that we have all the material ready, we should begin the new task at once.

  He did poorly in the examinations, considering how hard he had tried for them.

  Seeing that she is lawfully old enough to get married, I don’t think you can stop her.

  其他引导原因状语从句的连接词语还有: for the (simple) reason that, by reason that, on the grounds that, in as much as, in so far as等。

  5.while, whereas 引导对比从句

  如: While the teenage population in the United States has declined over the past decade, violent crimes committed by juveniles have sharply increased.

  A baby might show fear of an unfamiliar adult, whereas he is likely to smile and reach out to another infant.

  6.so…that…, with the result that, so much so that 引导结果状语从句

  如: Over the years, a large number of overseas students have studied at that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.

  He himself believed in freedom, so much so that he would rather die than live without it.

  7.in order that, in case, for fear that, lest (用虚拟语气) 引导目的状语从句

  如: Give me your telephone number, in case I need your help.

  Helen listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what John wanted.

  8.where作为连接副词的一种用法, 翻译为“在……地方”

  如: In Japan, a person’s capabilities are not forced into an inflexible specialty. Where there is willingness and intelligence, there is a place within the company to try and to succeed.

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