一、Directions：For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay. You should start your essay with a brief description of the picture and then express your views on the importance of doing small things before undertaking something big. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
二、Directions：For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay. You should start your essay with a brief description of the picture and then express your views on the importance of reading literature. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
Can Digital Textbook Truly Replace the Print Kind?
The shortcomings of traditional print edition textbooks are obvious: Forstarters they're heavy, with the average physics textbook weighing 3.6 pounds.They're also expensive, especially when you factor in the average collegestudent's limited budget, typically costing hundreds of dollars every semester.
But the worst part is that print version of textbooks are constantlyundergoing revisions. Many professors require that their students use only thelatest versions in the classroom, essentially rendering older texts unusable.For students, it means they're basically stuck with a four pound paper-weightthat they can't sell back.
Which is why digital textbooks, if they live up to their promise, couldhelp ease many of these shortcomings. But till now, they've been something likea mirage (幻影) in the distance,more like a hazy (模糊的) dream thanan actual reality. Imagine the promise: Carrying all your textbooks in a 1.3 pound iPad? It sounds almost too good to be true.
But there are a few pilot schools already making the transition (过度) over to digital books. Universities like Cornell and Brown have jumped onboard. And one medical program at the University of California,Irvine, gave their entire class iPads with which to download textbooks justlast year.
But not all were eager to jump aboard.
"People were tired of using the iPad textbook besides using it forreading," says Kalpit Shah, who will be going into his second year atlrvine's medical program this fall. "They weren't using it as a source ofcommunication because they couldn't read or write in it. So a third of thepeople in my program were using the iPad in class to take notes, the otherthird were using laptops and the last third were using paper and pencil."
The reason it hasn't caught on yet, he tells me, is that thefunctionality of e-edition textbooks is incredibly limited, and some studentsjust aren't motivated to learn new study behavior.
But a new application called Inkling might change all that. The companyjust released an updated version last week, and it'll be utilized in over 50undergraduate and graduate classrooms this coming school year.
Digital textbooks are not going to catch on," says Inkling CEO MattMaclnnis as he's giving me a demo (演示) over coffee. "What I mean by that is the current perspectiveof the digital textbook is it's an exact copy of the print book. There's CourseSmart, etc., these guys who take any image of the page and put it on a screen.If that's how we're defining digital textbooks, there's no hope of that becominga mainstream product."
He calls Inkling a platform for publishers to build rich multimediacontent from the ground up, with a heavy emphasis on real-world functionality.The traditional textbook merely serves as a skeleton.
At first glance Inkling is an impressive experience. After swiping (敲击) into the iPad app (软件), which youcan get for free here, he opens up a few different types of textbooks.
Up first is a chemistry book. The boot time is pretty fast, and henavigates through (浏览) a fewchapters before swiping into a fully rendered 3D molecule that can be spunaround to view its various building blocks. "Publishers give us all of thesource media, artwork, videos," he says, "We help them think throughhow to actually build something for this platform."
Next he pulls up a music composition textbook, complete with playabledemos. It's a learning experience that attacks you from multiple sensorydirections. It's clear why this would be something a music major would love.
But the most exciting part about Inkling, to me, is its notation (批注) system. Here's how it works!
When you purchase a used print book, it comes with its previous owner'shighlights and notes in the margins. It uses the experience of someone whoalready went through the class to help improve your reading (how much you trusteach notation is obviously up to you).
But with lnkling, you can highlight a piece of content and make notes.Here's where things get interesting, though: If a particularly importantpassage is highlighted by multiple lnkling users, that infbrmation is stored onthe cloud and is available for anyone reading the same textbook to come across.Thai means users have access to notes from not only their classmates andFacebook friends, but anyone who purchased the book across the country. Thebest comments are then sorted democratically by a voting system, meaning thatyour social learning experience is shared with the best and brightest thinkers.
As a bonus, professors can even chime in (插话) on discussions. They'll be able to answer the questions ofstudents who are in their class directly via the interactive book.
Of course, Inkling addresses several of the other shortcomings intraditional print as well. Textbook versions are constanly updated, motivatingpublishers by minimizing production costs (the big ones like McGraw-Hill arealready onboard). Furthermore, students will be able to purchase sections ofthe text instead of buying the whole thing, with individual chapters costing aslittle as $2.99,
There are, however, challenges.
"It takes efforts to build each book," Maclnnis tells me. Andit's clear why,
Each interactive textbook is a media-heavy experience built from theground up, and you can tell that it takes a respectable amount of manpower toput together each one.
For now the app is also iPad-exclusive, and though a few of theseeducational institutions are giving the hardware away for free, for otherstudents who don't have such a luxury it's an added layer of cost ---and anexpensive one at that.
But this much is clear. The traditional textbook model is and has beenbroken for quite some time. Whether digitally interactive ones like Inklingactually take off or not remains to be seen, and we probably won't have adefinite answer for the next few years.
However the solution to any problem begins with a step in a direction. And at least for now, that hazy mirage in the distance? A little more tangible(可触摸的), a little less of a dream.
The biggest problem with traditional print textbooks is that
A．they are not reused once a new edition comes out
B．they cost hundreds of dollars every semester
C．they are too heavy to carry around
D．they take a longer time to revise
What does the author say about digital textbooks?
A．It's not likely they will replace traditional textbooks.
B．They haven't fixed all the shortcomings of print books.
C．Very few of them are available in the market.
D．Many people still have difficulty using them.
According to Kalpit Shah, some students still use paper and pencil because ________.
A．they find it troublesome to take notes with an iPad
B．they are unwilling to change their study behavior
C．they have get tired of reading on the iPad
D．they are not used to reading on the screen
Inkling CEO Matt Maclnnis explains that the problem with Course Smart's current digital textbooks is that ________.
A．they have to be revised repeatedly
B．they are inconvenient to use in class
C．they are different from most mainstream products
D．they are no more than print versions put on a screen
Matt Maclnnis describes the updated version of Inkling as ________.
A．a good example of the mainstream products
B．a marvelous product of many creative ideas
C．a platform for building multimedia content
D．a mere skeleton of traditional textbooks
The author is most excited about lnkling's notation system because one can ________.
A．share his learning experience with the best and brightest thinkers
B．participate in discussions with classmates and Facebook friends
C．vote for the best learners democratically
D．store information on the cloud
One additional advantage of the interactive digital textbook is that ________.
A．students can switch to different discussions at any point
B．students can download relevant critical comments
C．professors can join in students' online discussions
D．professors can give prompt feedback to students' homework
One of the challenges to build an interactive digital textbook from the ground up is that is takes a great deal of ________.
One problem for students to replace traditional textbooks with interactive digital ones is the high___________ of the hardware.
According to the author, whether digital textbooks will catch on still ________.
There was a time when any personal information that was gathered about us was typed on a piece of paper and (36)_______away in a file cabinet. It could remain there for years and, often (37)_______never reach the outside world.
Things have done a complete about-face since then. (38) _______ for the change has been the astonishingly (39)_______ development in recent years of the computer. Today, any data that is (40) _______about us in one place or another - and for one reason or another - can be stored in a computer bank. It can then be easily passed to other computer banks. They are owned by (41)________ and by private businesses and corporations, lending (42)_______, direct mailing and telemarketing firms, credit bureaus, credit card companies, and government (43． _______ at the local, state, and federal level.
A growing number of Americans are seeing the accumulation and distribution of computerized date as a frightening invasion of their privacy. (44) _______ as the computer becomes increasingly efficient, easier to operate, and less costly to purchase and maintain. In 1970, a national survey showed that (45) _______. Seven years later, 47 percent expressed the same worry. (46) _______.
A. Children should be taught to be more careful.
B. Children shouldn't drink so much orange juice.
C. There is no need for the man to make such a fuss.
D. Timmy should learn to do things in the right way.
A. Fitness training．
B. The new job offer.
C. Computer programming．
D. Directorship of the club.
A. He needs to buy a new sweater．
B. He has got to save on fuel bills.
C. The fuel price has skyrocketed．
D. The heating system doesn't work.
A. Committing theft．
B. Taking pictures.
C. Window shopping,
D. Posing for the camera.
A. She is taking some medicine．
B. She has not seen a doctor yet.
C. She does not trust the man's advice．
D. She has almost recovered from the cough.
A. Pamela's report is not finished as scheduled．
B. Pamela has a habit of doing things in a hurry.
C. Pamela is not good at writing research papers．
D. Pamela's mistakes could have been avoided.
A. In the left-luggage office．
B. At the hotel reception.
C. In a hotel room．
D. At an airport.
A. She was an excellent student at college．
B. She works in the entertainment business.
C. She is fond of telling stories in her speech．
D. She is good at conveying her message.
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
A. Arranging the woman's appointment with Mr. Romero.
B. Fixing the time for the designer's latest fashion show.
C. Talking about an important gathering on Tuesday.
D. Preparing for the filming on Monday morning.
A. Her travel to Japan．
B. The awards ceremony.
C. The proper hairstyle for her new role．
D. When to start the makeup session.
A. He is Mr. Romero's agent．
B. He is an entertainment journalist.
C. He is the woman's assistant．
D. He is a famous movie star.
Questions 23 to 26 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
A. Make an appointment for an interview．
B. Send in an application letter.
C. Fill in an application form．
D. Make a brief self-introduction on the phone.
A. Someone having a college degree in advertising.
B. Someone experienced in business management.
C. Someone ready to take on more responsibilities.
D. Someone willing to work beyond regular hours.
A. Travel opportunities．
B. Handsome pay.
C. Prospects for promotion．
D. Flexible working hours.
A. It depends on the working hours．
B. It's about 500 pound a week.
C. It will be set by the Human Resources．
D. It is to be negotiated.
Questions 27 to 30 are based on the passage you have just heard.
A. To give customers a wider range of choices.
B. To make shoppers see as many items as possible.
C. To supply as many varieties of goods as it can.
D. To give space for more profitable products.
A. On the top shelves,
B. On the bottom shelves.
C. On easily accessible shelves．
D. On clearly marked shelves.
A. Sales assistants promoting high margin goods.
B. Sales assistants following customers around.
C. Customers competing for good bargains
D. Customers losing all sense of time
A. Many of them buy things on impulse．
B. A few of them are fathers with babies.
C. A majority of them are young couples.
D. Over 60% of them make shopping lists.
Questions 31 to 33 are based on the passage you have just heard.
A. Teaching mathematics at a school．
B. Doing research in an institute.
C. Studying for a college degree．
D. Working in a high-tech company.
A. He studied the designs of various choices．
B. He did experiments to different materials.
C. He bought an alarm clock with a pig face．
D. He asked different people for their opinions.
A. Its automatic mechanism．
B. Its manufacturing pattern.
C. Its way of waking people up．
D. Its funny-looking pig face.
Questions 34 to 36 are based on the passage you have just heard.
A. It's often caused by a change of circumstances.
B. It usually doesn't require any special attention.
C. It usually appears all of a sudden．
D. It usually lasts for several years.
A. They can't mix well with others.
B. They emotionally receive their friends.
C. They depend severely on family members．
D. They share similar interests with friends.
A. They lack consistent support from peers．
B. They doubt their own popularity.
C. They were born psychologically weak．
D. They focus too much attention on themselves.
Questions 48 to 57 are based on the following passage.
Walking, if you do it vigorously enough, is the overall best exercise for regular physical activity. It requires no equipment, everyone knows how to do it and it carries the 47 risk of injury. The human body is designed to walk. You can walk in parks or along a river or in your neighborhood. To get 48 benefit from walking, aim for 45 minutes a day, an average of five days a week.
Strength training is another important 49 of physical activity. Its purpose is to build and 50 bone and muscle mass, both of which shrink with age. In general, you will want to do strength training two or three days a week, 51 recovery days between sessions.
Finally, flexibility and balance training are 52 important as the body ages. Aches and pains are high on the list of complaints in old age. The result of constant muscle tension and stiffness of joints, many of them are 53 and simple flexibility training can 54 these by making muscles stronger and keeping joints lubricated (润滑). Some of this you do whenever you stretch. If you watch dogs and cats, you'll get an idea of how natural it is. The general 55 is simple: whenever the body has been in one position for a while, it is good to 56 stretch it in an opposite position.