Part A Spot Dictation
Directions:In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.Remember you will hear the passage ONLY ONCE.
Today, we'll talk about what other effects watching TV might produce on children. Children should be (1)a lot of television, many experts and parents agree, but there is at least one circumstance when it might be beneficial: (2). A recent study
conducted by Italian researchers found hat children (3)immediately preceding and during blood tests experienced less pain than children whose mothers (4) during the procedure, or children whose mothers were present but (5) .The research, led by Carlo Brown, MD, at the University of Siena, is published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood. (6)the study. None receivedany type of anesthesia; the children and their mothers (7). Both the group whose mothers attempted to distract them from the blood tests and those whose mothers simply observed reported (8)
than the group who watched cartoons. For that group, the levels of pain were less andthe children were better able to (9) .One of the possible explanations is that children might have (10)during the procedures, exacerbating their perception of pain. "The higher pain level reported by children during (11)shows the difficulty mothers have in interacting positively (12) in their children's life," the authors write.However, they stressed that (13)still provided benefits, noting that the children would (14)during the procedures. "Indeed, children state that having their parent present (15) when in pain," say the authors.Another possibility offered for consideration is the notion that the (16)might release painquelling endorphins. Endorphins, (17)produced by the pituitary gland, resemble opiates in their ability to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being. In other words, they might (18) .In any case, the study results suggest that health workers should (19) to watch television during painful procedures (20)
Part B Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this part of the test there will be some short talks and conversations. After each one, you will be asked some questions. The talks, conversations and questions will be spoken ONLYONCE. Now listen carefully and choose the right answer to each question you have heard and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
(A) A change in French eating habits.
(B) A boom in long-hour meals in France.
(C) The origin of hamburgers.
(D) The home of the sit-down mid-day meal.
(A) A variation in food supply.
(B) A change in the workforce.
(C) A rise in food prices.
(D) A fall in white-collarization.
(A) Bakeries now offer a limited range of albeit excellent products.
(B) There are about four kinds of bread, breakfast and dessert pastries.
(C) Bakeries sell sandwiches mainly in the working-class areas.
(D) France is currently witnessing a boom in sandwich business.
(A) Men usually like to eat more hamburgers than women do in France.
(B) Men, more likely to be working behind a jackhammer, need to eat so much.
(C) Women make up almost half the labor force in France now.
(D) Women have to pick up the children late from the day-care center.
(A) Because the bakeries have adapted the idea of fast food and made it French products.
(B) Because the bakeries have offered something that's very close to what is called fast food.
(C) Because the hamburgers have ham and butter in them.
(D) Because the hamburgers do not cost so much as those offered by McDonald.
(A) To intensify Tokyo's role in peacekeeping missions abroad.
(B) To stop the country's air force transport mission in Iraq.
(C) To override the lower house's decision.
(D) To approve the Democratic Party's bill to continue the mission.
(A) Worsening water scarcity.
(B) Increasing risks of diseases.
(C) Triggering mass displacement.
(D) Reducing the population in Asia.
(A) To resume peace talks which have been halted for a long time.
(B) To forge and sign a peace treaty pledged by both sides.
(C) To dispel his skepticism over chances for a deal before he leaves office.
(D) To open a 44-nation conference over the Middle East issue.
(A) What to do to control crime.
(B) What role a lawyer plays in a court case.
(C) How to tell a hardened criminal from a first-time offender.
(D) How to convict a criminal and put him in prison.
(B) Quick conviction.
(C) The social structure.
(D) The economy.
(A) Education programs are not so effective as required.
(B) Drug treatment programs are insufficiently funded.
(C) Some rehabilitation programs inside prisons have been stopped.
(D) More people are convicted than prison space can accommodate.
(A) These programs are mainly intended for the kingpins of drug deals to get rehabilitated.
(B) These programs are currently carried out in most states in the country.
(C) These programs aim to develop a culture inside the prisons.
(D) These programs have psychological and educational components.
(A) Because gangs start in prisons and make prison a repressive experience.
(B) Because criminals tend to be repeat offenders.
(C) Because there is no stigma attached to most criminals.
(D) Because society doesn't look at released prisoners with disdain.
(A) How to interact with colleagues and clients face to face.
(B) How to make effective telephone conversations.
(C) What skills are needed to get and hold down a job.
(D) What makes for an excellent ability to express yourself.
(A) Basic to advanced knowledge of computer application.
(B) Ability to calculate all transactions, profits and costs.
(C) Creativity in making presentations to clients.
(D) Proficiency in at least one foreign language.
(A) To create your own databases on the computer.
(B) To enhance your social skills by holding parties with your friends.
(C) To use the computer in free time and become familiar with its operation.
(D) To store as many telephone numbers and addresses as you can.
(A) Graduating students.
(B) Trainee managers.
(C) Professional secretaries.
(D) Low-level administrative staff.
Military victories, trade, missionary zeal, racial arrogance and a genius for bureaucracy all played well-documented roles in making the British Empire the largest the world has known. Rather less well understood was the importance of the moustache. A monumental new history, The Decline and Fall of the British Empire by Piers Brendon, promises to restore this neglected narrative to its rightful place in the national story. It can be concluded from the passage that the British moustache ______. (A) has been well documented in the history of the British Empire
Dr. Brendon, a Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge University, argues that colonial moustaches had a clear practical purpose: to demonstrate virility and intimidate the Empire's subject peoples. The waxing and waning of the British moustache precisely mirrored the fortunes of the Empire-blooming beneath the noses of the East India Company's officers, finding full expression in Lord Kitchener's bushy appendage and fading out with the Suez crisis in Anthony Eden's apologetic wisps.
This analysis of the growth of the stiff upper lip is an essential strand of Dr. Brendon's epic 650-page political, cultural, economic and social history of the Empire, which is published on October 18. "It is a running gag in a serious book, but it does give one a point of reference," he said yesterday. In the 18th and early 19th century, sophisticated Britons wore wigs but spurned facial hair. The exception was the King, George III, whose unshaven appearance was mocked as a sign of his madness. However, by the 1830s the "moustache movement" was in the ascendancy. British officers, copying the impressive moustaches that they encountered on French and Spanish soldiers during the Napoleonic Wars, started the craze, but the real impetus came form India.
Just as British troops in Afghanistan today are encouraged to grow beards to ease their dealings with local tribesmen, so the attitudes of Indian troops under the command of East India Company officers in the first half of the 19th century altered the appearance of the British soldier. "For the Indian sepoy the moustache was a symbol of virility. They laughed at the unshaven British officers," Dr. Brendon said. In 1854 moustaches were made compulsory for the company's Bombay regiment. The fashion took Britain by storm as civilians imitated their heroes.
Dr. Brendon writes. "During and after the Crimean War, barbers advertised different patterns in their windows such as the 'Raglan' and the Cardigan'." Moustaches were clipped, trimmed and waxed "until they curved like sabres and bristled like bayonets". After 1918 moustaches became thinner and humbler as the Empire began to gasp for breath, even as it continued to expand territorially. It had been fatally wounded, Dr. Brendon suggests, by the very belief in the freedom that it had preached.
After the victory over Germany and Japan in 1945, independence movements across the red-painted sections of the world map, and Britain's own urgent domestic priorities, meant that the Empire was doomed.
The moustache too was in terminal decline. "It had become a joke thanks to Charlie Chaplin and Groucho Marx. It had become an international symbol of 'villainy' thanks to Hitler's toothbrush," writes Dr. Brendon. In Britain it was also synonymous with the "Colonel Blimps"o clinging to an outmoded idea of colonial greatness.
In Eden's faint moustache Britain's diminished international status found a fitting symbol. It all but disappeared on TV and, moments before his broadcast on the eve of the fateful occupation of the Suez Canal in 1956, his wife had to blacken the bristles with mascara. His successor, Harold Macmillan, was the last British Prime Minister to furnish his upper lip. Harold Wilson, the selfstyled man of the people, had been clean shaven since the 1940s, Dr. Brendon notes. "He obviously believed that the white hot technological revolution was not to be operated with a moustache."
(B) has long been considered significant in the formation and expansion of the British Empire
(C) has often been ridiculed in the colonial history of the United Kingdom
(D) has long been ignored and considered insignificant in the making of the British Empire
It can be concluded from the passage that the British moustache ______.
(A) has been well documented in the history of the British Empire
The word "virility" in the sentence "that colonial moustaches had a clear practical purpose: to demonstrate virility and intimidate the Empire's subject peoples" (para. 2) can best be interpreted as ______.
According to the passage, the Crimean War which witnessed the development of different patternsof the British moustache was fought ______.
(A) in the early 19th century
(B) in the 18th century
(C) in the middle of the 19th century
(D) in the late 18th century
It can be inferred from the passage that from the 1950s to the 1960s, the three statesmen tookthe post of British Prime Minister by the order of ______.
(A) Harold Wilson, Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan
(B) Anthony Eden, Harold Wilson and Harold Macmillan
(C) Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan and Harold Wilson
(D) Harold Macmillan, Anthony Eden and Harold Wilson
Which of the following CANNOT be true according to the passage?
(A) Dr Brendon points out that colonial moustaches are the deciding factor which led to the downfall of the British Empire.
(B) Dr Brendon has made it clear that the history of colonial moustaches reflects from one angle the decline of the British Empire.
(C) Dr Brendon has tried to restore the role of colonial moustaches in the history of the British Empire.
Historically, TV's interest in "green" issues has been limited to the green that spends and makes the world go round. (That, and Martians. ) As for environmentalism, TV is where people watch SUV ads on energy-sucking giant screens that are as thirsty as a Bavarian at Oktoberfest. Which of the following does not serve as the example to support the statement "TV is jumping on the biodiesel-fueled bandwagon" (para. 2) ______. (A) MTV: The Real World: Hollywood will be set in a "green" house. By stating that "Clearly this is not all pure altruism." (para. 4), the author is ______. (A) highly appreciative (B) somewhat critical (C) ironic and negative (D) subjective and passionate Why does the author mention in paragraph 4 the two groups the networks are fond of? (A) They are the main target of the consumption medium. Which of the following best explains the sentence "It's an unlikely marriage of motives." (para.5)? (A) Ad-supported TV has consistent motives. It can be concluded from the passage that "product placement" (para. 8) is a kind of ______. (A) commodity exhibition (B) display of products (C) indirect advertising (D) direct promotion strategy
But with the greening of politics and pop culture from A1 Gore to Leo DiCaprio to Homer and Marge in The Simpsons Movie—TV is jumping on the biodiesel-fueled bandwagon. In November, NBC (plus Bravo, Sci Fi and other sister channels) will run a week of green-themed episodes, from news to sitcoms. CBS has added a "Going Green" segment to The Early Show. And Fox says it will work climate change into the next season of 24. ("Dammit, Chloe, there's no time! The polar ice cap's going to melt in 15 minutes!")
On HGTV's Living with Ed, actor Ed Begley Jr. offers tips for eco-living from his solar-powered house in Studio City, Calif.-see him energy-audit Cheryl Tiegs! —while Sundance airs its documentary block "The Green. " MTV will set The Real World: Hollywood in a "green" house. Next year Discovery launches 24-hour eco-lifestyle channel Planet Green, a plan validated this spring when the eco-minded documentary Planet Earth became a huge hit for Discovery. "Green is part of [Discovery's] heritage," says Planet Green president Eileen O'Neill. "But as pop culture was starting to recognize it, we realized we could do a better job positioning ourselves."
Clearly this is not all pure altruism. Those popular, energy-stingy compact fluorescent bulbs? NBC's owner, General Electric, has managed to sell one or two. "When you have them being a market leader and saying this makes good business sense, people listen to that on (the TV) side," says Lauren Zalaznick, Bravo Media president, who is heading NBC's effort. And green pitches resonate with young and well-heeled viewers (the type who buy Priuses and $2-a-lb. organic apples), two groups the networks are fond of. NBC is confident enough in its green week's appeal to schedule it in sweeps.
It's an unlikely marriage of motives. Ad-supported TV is a consumption medium: it persuades you to want and buy stuff. Traditional home shows about renovating and decorating are catnip for retailers like Lowe's and Home Depot. Of course, there are green alternatives to common purchases: renewable wood, Energy Star appliances, hybrid ears. But sometimes the greener choice is simply not to buy so much junk-not the friendliest sell to advertisers.
The bigger hurdle, though, may be creative. How the NBC shows will work in the messages is still up in the air. (Will the Deal or No Deal babes wear hemp miniskirts? Will the Bionic Woman get wired for solar?) Interviewed after the 24 announcement, executive producer Howard Gordon hedged a bit on Fox's green promises. "It'll probably be more in the props. We might see somebody drive a hybrid."
Will it work? Green is a natural fit on cable lifestyle shows or news programs—though enlisting a news division to do advocacy has its own issues. But commanding a sitcom like The Office to work in an earnest environmental theme sounds like the kind of high-handed p. r. directive that might be satirized on, well, The Office. Even Begley—formerly of St. Elsewhere—notes that the movie Chinatown worked because it kept the subplot about the water supply in Los Angeles well in the background. "It's a story about getting away with murder, and the water story is woven in.
Of course, in an era of rampant product placement, there are worse things than persuading viewers to buy a less wasteful light bulb by hanging one over Jack Bauer as he tortures a terrorist. The greatest challenge—for viewers as well as programmers—is not letting entertainment become a substitute for action; making and watching right-minded shows isn't enough in itself. The 2007 Emmy Awards, for a start, aims to be carbon neutral, solar power, biodiesel generators, hybrids for the stars, bikes for production assistants—though the Academy cancelled Fox's idea to change the red carpet, no kidding, to green. The most potent message may be seeing Hollywood walk the walk, in a
(B) NBC: The program of the Deal or No Deal will be continued.
(C) NBC: A week of green-themed episodes is being planned.
(D) CBS: A "Going Green" program has been added to The Early Show.
(B) They are the advocates of green movement.
(C) They are most representative of today's audience.
(D) They are young adults and senior citizens.
(B) The main target of ad-supported TV is to persuade viewers to buy more.
(C) It's impossible for TV to readjust its opposing motives.
(D) It's quite difficult for TV to integrate its motives.
Which of the following does not serve as the example to support the statement "TV is jumping on the biodiesel-fueled bandwagon" (para. 2) ______.
(A) MTV: The Real World: Hollywood will be set in a "green" house.
By stating that "Clearly this is not all pure altruism." (para. 4), the author is ______.
(A) highly appreciative
(B) somewhat critical
(C) ironic and negative
(D) subjective and passionate
Why does the author mention in paragraph 4 the two groups the networks are fond of?
(A) They are the main target of the consumption medium.
Which of the following best explains the sentence "It's an unlikely marriage of motives." (para.5)?
(A) Ad-supported TV has consistent motives.
It can be concluded from the passage that "product placement" (para. 8) is a kind of ______.
(A) commodity exhibition
(B) display of products
(C) indirect advertising
(D) direct promotion strategy
In Idaho's Snake River Valley, where potato farmers depend on electric pumps to water their crops, the state's largest power company hopes to stand tradition on its head and profit by selling farmers less, not more, electricity. To do that, Idaho Power is vastly expanding its energy-efficiency What is the main idea of the passage? (A) Electric utilities lose more profits from reducing electric demand.
programs for 395,000 residential customers, small businesses, and farmers. Usually the more customers save, the less utilities make. But under an innovative deal with state regulators in March, Idaho Power gets paid for its plants and equipment and boosts profits by winning incentive
payments for reducing electric demand.
It's an idea that appears to be catching on as legislatures fret about global warming and utilities scramble to meet rising demand without the increasing harassment and cost of building new power plants. Idaho is among 13 states whose regulators have either adopted or proposed measures in
the past year to decouple utility profit from electricity production. Decoupling is advancing even faster for natural-gas utilities, with 25 states either adopting or proposing decoupling plans in recent years. "This wave toward 'decoupling' is clearly gathering momentum," says Martin Kushler of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy in Washington. "More states seem to be calling every week to find out about this."
Although California pioneered the idea 25 years ago—and strengthened incentives and penalties last month—interest is picking up again because of global warming, experts say. The main idea is that by rearranging the incentive structure, regulators can give utilities clear incentives to push energy efficiency and conservation without hurting their bottom lines. Under the new rules in California, for example, electric utilities could make as much as $150 million extra if they can persuade Californians to save some $2 billion worth of power, according to the Natural Resources
"This is a vital step in the global-warming fight," says Audrey Chang, an NRDC researcher. "It represents, we hope, a historic shift toward decoupling that is going to help bend the energy demand curve downwards." Beside Idaho, states that this year adopted decoupling for some or all of its
electric power industry include New York, Connecticut, and Vermont. At least nine other states have seen major decoupling proposals this year.
Idaho Power is happy that its key fixed costs—plants and equipment—are now separated from variable costs of electricity sales such as fuel. Regulators annually readjust those fixed rates—up or down—a maximum of 3 percent to ensure that the company gets no more or less than it has been
regulated to receive. But customers should benefit, too, as utility efficiency programs cut energy use and energy bills—something the company is trying hard to do so it can win a bonus if it meets or exceeds energy—cutting goals. "Before there was almost a disincentive to go hard at efficiency because we weren't recovering our fixed costs," says Mike Youngblood, an analyst for Idaho Powe "Now the anticipation is that we will recover our fixed cost, no more or less. And our customers will see their bill go down if they invest in energy efficiency."
One key reason utilities are often willing to decouple or even leading proponents of the proposals is because the costs of building a power plant has risen dramatically. A 500- megawatt coal-fired plant that cost $1 billion just a few years ago might cost $1.5 billion today, industry experts say. Add to that growing uncertainty about future costs. Global- warming legislation could put a price of $ 30 per ton on carbon-dioxide emissions from power plants. That could make coal, the cheapest power today, more costly. Another factor is the rising community opposition to coal-fired
power plant construction.
(B) Electric utilities gain more profits from increasing electric demand.
(C) The more electricity customers save, the less profits utilities make.
(D) The more electricity customers save, the more incentive payments utilities get.
What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) Electric utilities lose more profits from reducing electric demand.
Which of the following gives the best definition of the expression "to stand tradition on its head" (para. 1) ?
(A) To criticize tradition.
(B) To go against tradition.
(C) To carry forward tradition.
(D) To integrate tradition.
According to the passage, when Idaho Power is building plants and purchasing equipment, such fixed costs ______.
(A) will no longer be treated as the costs of electricity sales
(B) will partially be covered by state regulators
(C) are still to be recovered by the companies
(D) are paid from customers' electricity bills
In the passage, the measures of decoupling used in utility efficiency programs refer to the practice of ______.
(A) separating the utility profits from power productio
(B) combining fixed costs with variable costs
(C) strengthening both incentives and penalties
(D) rearranging the incentive structure
All of the following are the reasons why electric utilities welcome decoupling EXCEPT ______.
(A) the rapidly rising cost of building power plants
(B) the uncertainty about future costs
(C) the community opposition to the building of coal-fired power plants
(D) the reservations consumer advocates have about energy-saving measures