Part A Spot Dictation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Remember you will hear the passage ONLY ONCE. Now let ' s begin Part A with Spot Dictation.
Renowned U. S. economist, John Rutledge, who helped frame the fiscal policies of two former U. S. presidents, warned that an abrupt rise in China' s currency could lead to another Asian financial crisis. The founder of Rutledge Capital told the media that if the yuan rises (1) it would discourage foreign direct investment in China while (2) by market speculators. Currency change is more difficult for investors and (3) .
The Chinese currency has appreciated by (4) since July 2005 when the country allowed the yuan to (5) within a daily band of 0.3 percent. The analysts are expecting the currency to rise (6) by the end of this year. But if the yuan rose 20 to 30 percent, as some U. S. politicians are demanding, it would (7) causing a recession and deflation. Similar advice toallow an abrupt appreciation of a currency led to (8) in 1997, and came very close to destroying (9) . The U. S. economist says that investors want foremost to (10) associated with large fluctuations in currency and inflation. They (11) after evaluating risks to benefits such as (12) . A rising yuan would drive up labor costs for foreign investors and would not (13) .
Earlier reports said that currency speculators had pumped (14) U.S. dollars into China by the end of last year, with another 70 billion U. S. dollars (15) in the first three months of this year. There is no way to (16) of this type of investment and many economists disagree that (17) is so high. Instead of further appreciating its currency, China should make the yuan (18) . If the yuan were more easily converted into foreign currencies it would allow Chinese companies to expand overseas, (19) , and provide management experience and capital that China needs. It would also (20) and reduce speculative money coming into the country.
Directions: In this part of the test there will be some short talks and conversations. After each one, you will be asked some questions. The talks, conversations and questions will be spoken ONLY ONCE. Now listen carefully and choose the right answer to each question you have heard and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Now let's begin Part B with Listening Comprehension.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following conversation.
(A) Younger people are more comfortable with technology than adults.
(B) Adults are less intimidated by technology than they used to be.
(C) Robert himself is comparatively better with computers than other people.
(D) Most of his friends are a lot more addicted to games than he is.
(A) E-mail is very convenient.
(B) E-mail messages make better keepsakes.
(C) E-mail messages make a casual form of communication.
(D) E-mail is great for just saying hello and checking up on people.
(A) Playing games.
(B) Checking on little things.
(C) Instant messaging.
(D) An interesting program.
(A) The Internet makes too many things accessible to people.
(B) His generation is hooked on the Internet.
(C) Some of his friends make the Internet their whole life.
(D) Not everyone has access to the Internet.
A) They cannot become part of the work force.
(B) They won't be an added asset as they are today.
(C) They will have to get over their fear of these skills.
(D) They are going to be at a disadvantage.
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following news.
(A) Because the nuclear reactor is Pakistan's property.
(B) Because Russia helped build the reactor in the 1960s.
(C) Because the uranium was provided by other nations.
(D) Because its neighbors are very sensitive about its nuclear program.
(A) Insisting that the revelations were unlikely to affect world events
(B) Dismissing those diplomatic cables as untrue.
(C) Purposely making some confidential materials public.
(D) Effectively containing Iran's nuclear program.
(A) He thought the elections should be cancelled.
(B) He was open to letting the results be counted.
(C) He thought he was one of the two front-runners in the balloting.
(D) He proposed that reelections should be held as soon as possible.
(A) Few people expect a breakthrough on reaching an international treaty.
(B) The toughest issues on climate change would remain unresolved.
(C) The United Nations negotiating process itself is at risk.
(D) The United States entered the talks in a strong position.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following interview.
(A) Dressing styles throughout the world.
(B) Taking a journey to Sri Lanka in South Asia.
(C) Life of a native Sri Lankan now living in California.
(D) Traditional dress in the interviewee's home country.
(A) Saris are not practical.
(B) Saris are old-fashioned.
(C) Saris are not cheap.
(D) Saris are hot and difficult to walk in.
(B) Family background.
(C) Friends people make.
(D) Countries they have been to.
(A) Men in the countryside used to wear a sarong.
(B) Men in the city wear sarongs to relax at home.
(C) Men wear pants and shirts now, never sarongs.
(D) Men wear sarongs only on formal occasions.
(A) Because she sees more value in saris.
(B) Because she has married an American.
(C) Because she wants to be in style.
(D) Because she likes to appear really exotic.
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following talk.
36 Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following talk.
(C) Sleep apnea.
(A) Snoring throughout the night.
(B) Heavy breathing in sleep.
(C) Stopping breathing when sleeping.
(D) Not remembering to wake up in the morning.
(A) They get sudden attacks of sleep any time any place.
(B) They are mostly students enrolled in 8 A.M. classes.
(C) They are not easily cured if narcolepsy is diagnosed.
(D) They often sit at a table and their faces fall into a soup.
(A) Chronic insomnia is a rare condition compared with apnea or narcolepsy.
(B) Almost everybody has chronic insomnia once in a while.
(C) The cause for chronic insomnia is most often psychological.
(D) There is no effective cure for this type of sleep disorder.
If the past couple of weeks are any indication, mainstream media may be primed for a comeback. In July, The Washington Post published its massive "Top Secret America" series, painstakingly detailing the growth of the US intelligence community after 9/11. When it ran, New York Observer editor Kyle Pope crowed (on Twitter, ironically), "Show me the bloggers who could have done this !" The Los Angeles Times recently mobilized a community to action when it broke the news that top city officials in Bell, Caiif. , one of the poorest cities in Los Angeles county, were raking in annual salaries ranging from $100,000 to $ 800,000.
Clearly, if mainstream media is an aging fighter against the ropes, it still has a few punches left to throw. But such make-a-difference journalism requires lots of time and money, something most news outlets don't have. And it runs counter to the frantic pace of modern, Web-driven newsrooms. So for journalism to survive in the Digital Age, it needs to be simultaneously fast-paced and substantive, snarky and thought-provoking. Or, at the very least, it must find some middle ground where illuminating investigative pieces and Mel Gibson telephone call mash-ups can coexist.
The 24/7 newsroom has become an intractable part of the media landscape, and the Web is the primary battleground news outlets have to win in order to stay competitive. That has forced journalists to become much more mindful of online traffic, which can sap morale. As a recent New York Times piece put it.- "Young journalists who once dreamed of trotting the globe in pursuit of a story are instead shackled to their computers, where they try to eke out a fresh thought or be first to report anything that will impress Google algorithms and draw readers their way. " But the Washington Post and Los Angeles Times pieces demonstrate that, regardless of whether the stories appear in print or online, reporters still need the time and space to be effective watchdogs--to track down sources and slog through financial disclosures, and court documents that often fill the better part of a journalist's working life.
Right out of college, I spent several years working for a mid-size regional daily newspaper. I covered endless city and county government meetings, reported on crime and education, and learned that reporters should always carry a sensible pair of shoes in their car in case they are sent into the mountains to cover a wildfire. In my relatively short time in the newspaper trenches, I developed a profound respect for the people who do the decidedly unglamorous work of keeping government honest for little pay and even less job security.
The Pew Research Center's State of the News Media 2010 report found that, while reported journalism is contracting and commentary and analysis is growing, 99 percent of the links on blogs circle back to the mainstream press. (Just four outlets--BBC, CNN, The New York Times, and The Washington Post--account for 80 percent of all links. ) The report concludes that new media are largely filled with debate that is dependent on the shrinking base of reporting coming from old media. The same report included polling data showing that 72 percent of Americans feel that most news sources are biased in their coverage, feel overwhelmed rather than informed by the amount of news and information they're taking in.
I'm not advocating a return to some supposed halcyon period before the Internet. I'm still a product of my generation. I like the alacrity of the Web and admire its ability to connect people around the world, and to aggregate and spread information at lightning speed. It s warming glow
gives me probably 90 percent of the news I consume, and I enjoy commenting on articles that friends post on Facebook.
But I hope it won't make me sound prematurely aged to say that sometimes the Internet exhausts me. That I'm troubled by how frequently I find myself sucked into the blogging vortex of endless linkage, circuitous kvetching, and petty media infighting. I often emerge from these binges hours later, bleary-eyed and less informed than when I started.
The media need to be quick and smart. They should tell us something new, rather than simply recycle outrage. Some of the watchdog role has been shouldered by nonprofit outfits like the Pulitzer Prize-winning ProPublica--which has recruited a number of top investigative reporters with a mission of producing journalism in the public interest--as well as smaller nonprofit ventures springing up around the country.
Many old-school media outlets are moving, toward a primarily Web-focused model. The "Top Secret America" series may be the best example to date of a deeply reported piece that probably could not have been achieved without the resources and support of a major news operation, but which is also packaged appealingly for the Web. All of this seems to indicate that, despite reported journalism's painful contractions, a few small inroads are being made toward creating a new model for news. Solid reporting and thoughtful analysis shouldn't be the sole province of a dying medium.
The author introduced The Washington Post and The Los Angeles Times at the beginning of the passage in order to show that______.
(A) newspapers can still play their role of effective watchdogs
(B) newspapers will spend lots of time and money to provide solid report
(C) mainstream media is an aging fighter that runs counter to Web-driven newsrooms
(D) mainstream media is planning for a comeback in the Digital Age
According to the passage, journalists in the Digital Age______.
(A) need only to use online traffic to provide all kinds of news
(B) can rely on computer to realize their dream of trotting the globe
(C) are often forced to be fastened to their computers to do their work
(D) should be aware of the possible restrictions of online-based news reporting
The Pew Research Center's State of the News Media 2010 report concludes that______.
(A) most links on blogs and debates from new media are still dependent on old medina
(B) new media are separated farther away from old media
(C) reported journalism, commentary and analysis are growing
(D) with rapidly developing new media, the coverage of news becomes more balanced
When the author was telling his own experience with the Internet, he was______.
(A) simply showing his admiration and appreciation
(B) trying to let readers share his fascinating experience
(C) displaying his ambivalent attitude and confusion over the Internet
(D) criticizing the power of the Internet
The author implies at the end of the passage that______.
(A) online journalism has little to learn from mainstream media
(B) solid reporting and thoughtful analysis is still one major advantage of old media
(C) the painful contractions of reported journalism are inevitable and necessary, and mainstream media is dying fast
(D) with the coming of the Digital Age, it is almost impossible to inherit the old media's tradition of effective watchdogs
You know Adam Smith for his "invisible hand," the mysterious force that steers the selfish economic decisions of individuals toward a result that leaves us all better off. It's been a hugely influential idea, one that during the last few decades of the 20th century began to take on the
trappings of a universal truth.
Lately, though, the invisible hand has been getting slapped. The selfish economic decisions of home buyers, mortgage brokers, investment bankers and institutional investors over the past decade clearly did not leave us all better off. Did Smith have it wrong?
No, Smith did not have it wrong. It's just that some of his self-proclaimed disciples have given us a terribly incomplete picture of what he believed. The man himself used the phrase invisible hand only three times: once in the famous passage from The Wealth of Nations that
everybody cites; once in his other big book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments; and once in a posthumously published history of astronomy (in which he was talking about "the invisible hand of Jupiter"--the god, not the planet). For Smith, the invisible hand was but one of an array of
interesting social and economic forces worth thinking about.
Why did the invisible, hand emerge as the one idea from Smith's work that everybody remembers? Mainly because it's so simple and powerful. If the invisible hand of the market really can be relied on at all times and in all places to deliver the most prosperous and just society possible, then we'd be idiots not to get out of the way and let it work its magic. Plus, the supply-meets- demand straightforwardness of the invisible-hand metaphor lends itself to mathematical treatment, and math is the language in which economists communicate with one another.
Hardly anything else in Smith's work is nearly that simple or consistent. Consider The Theory of Moral Sentiments, his long-neglected other masterpiece, published 17 years before The Wealth of Nations, in 1759. I recently cracked open a new 250th-anniversary edition, complete with a lucid introduction by economist Amartya Sen, in hopes that it would make clearer how we ought to organize our economy.
Fat chance. Most of the book is an account of how we decide whether behavior is good or not. In Smith's telling, the most important factor is our sympathy for one another." "To restrain our selfish, and to indulge our benevolent affections, constitutes the perfection of human nature," he
writes. But he goes on to say that "the commands and laws of the Deity" (he seems to be referring to the Ten Commandments) are crucial guides to conduct too. Then, in what seems to be a strange detour from those earthly and divine parameters, he argues that the invisible hand ensures that the selfish and sometimes profligate spending habits of the rich tend to promote the public good.
There are similar whiplash moments in The Wealth of Nations. The dominant theme running through the book is that self-interest and free, competitive markets can be powerful forces for prosperity and for good. But Smith also calls for regulation of interest rates and laws to protect workers from their employers. He argues that the corporation, the dominant form of economic organization in today's world, is an abomination.
The point here isn't that Smith was right in every last one of his prescriptions and proscriptions. He was an 18th century Scottish scholar, not an all-knowing being. Many of his apparent self-contradictions are just that--contradictions that don't make a lot of sens
But Smith was also onto something that many free-market fans who pledge allegiance to him miss. The world is a complicated place. Markets don't exist free of societies and governments and regulators and customs and moral sentiments; they are entwined. Also, while markets often deliver wondrous results, an outcome is not by definition good simply because the market delivers it. Some other standards have to be engaged.
Applying Smith's teachings to the modern world, then, is a much more complex and doubtful endeavor than it's usually made out to be. He certainly wouldn't have been opposed to every government intervention in the market. On financial reform, it's easy to imagine Smith supporting
the creation of a Consumer Financial Protection Agency and crackdowns on giant financial institutions. He might have also favored the just-passed health care reform bill, at least the part that requires states to set up exchanges to ensure retail competition for health insurance. Then
again, he might not have. Asking "What would Adam Smith say?" is a lot easier than conclusively answering it. It is pretty clear, though, that he wouldn't just shout, "Don't interfere with the invisible hand!" and leave it at that.
The author introduced the selfish economic decisions of home buyers, mortgage brokers, investment bankers and institutional investors over the past decade to illustrate that______.
(A) the invisible hand was a universal truth
(B) supply-meets-demand is the law of market economy
(C) economic decisions are always guided by selfish motivations
(D) the invisible hand can sometimes lead to disastrous consequences
The reason that everybody remembers Adam Smith's "invisible hand" is that______.
(A) it is plain, simple, and forceful
(B) it can be relied on at all times
(C) it can be proved through mathematical calculation
(D) it is a metaphor used in everyday life
Which of the following best paraphrases the meaning of the short sentence "Fat chance. "(park6)?
(A) There is almost no possibility of expounding the "invisible hand" theory.
(B) The possibilities are plentiful for the discussion of free market.
(C) There will be enough opportunities to introduce classical economy.
(D) There is little discussion about how to organize our economy.
The author tries to show that Adam Smith's ideas expressed in his books ______.
(A) are all related to the study of the nature of market forces
(B) are consistent and systematic throughout
(C) are sometimes apparently self-contradictory
(D) are supportive of the corporation as the dominant economic organization
Which of the following can serve as the conclusion of this passage?
(A) Adam Smith's analysis of the invisible hand is still the guideline for today's economy.
(B) Adam Smith's self-proclaimed disciples have misunderstood the expression of "the invisiblehand".
(C) Adam Smith used the metaphor of "the invisible hand" to describe different kinds of social phenomena.
(D) Adam Smith's self-contradictory assertions and discussions are understandable.
The majority of the country's top universities have introduced schemes to give preferential treatment to pupils from poorly performing comprehensives. They range from lower A-level offers to reserving places for them. Supporters of "handicapping" argue that it gives recognition to bright pupils who have been inadequately taught and promotes social mobility. Opponents, however, believe some schemes crudely discriminate against private and grammar school pupils because of political pressure.
Out of the 39 institutions that are members of the Russell Group and 1994 Group of research universities, at least 30 have introduced schemes that give some form of extra recognition to whole categories of applicants from comprehensives or from deprived areas. Gillian Low, head of the Lady
Eleanor Holles School in Hampton, west London, and president of the Girls' Schools association, said: "We are absolutely in favour of social mobility. The issue is how that is achieved, how talented people from disadvantaged backgrounds are identified. Our objection is to anything that is generic by type of school as it does not address the individual pupil, it potentially discriminates against them. "
Low added: "It doesn't, for example, take account of the person at the low-performing school who is having private tuition--or the fact that many of our pupils are on full bursary support. It's too crude a tool. " Programmes include one at Manchester introduced for 2011 entry that gives
priority consideration to applicants from underachieving schools and deprived areas. Durham is using a similar system.
Bristol, Exeter, Nottingham and some departments at Edinburgh advise admissions tutors to consider lowering the standard offer for a course if a successful applicant is from an underperforming school. Research at Bristol released earlier this year justified this approach on the grounds that students who had attended poor schools outperformed those with the same grades who had been better educated.
This autumn, a group of 12 universities led by Newcastle and including Birmingham, Essex, Leeds and York will pilot a scheme for about 300 promising candidates nominated by their comprehensives. They will be given coaching and in most cases will be entitled to offers up to two grades lower than applicants going to university through standard routes. Cambridge gives extra points to candidates from schools with poor average GCSE grades when short listing candidates, while Oxford gives priority to similar applicants when deciding who to interview. Neither university lowers its grade offers for places on this basis, however.
Pressure on universities to increase their numbers of state school pupils was expected to ease with the election of the Conservative-led coalition Instead, however, the government, under pressure from the Liberal Democrats, has pursued a similar approach. This weekend, David Willetts, the universities minister, said: "These are the kinds of initiatives, transparent, based on robust evidence, looking at applicants' potential, which are a good way of promoting social mobility. "
Steve Smith, vice-chancellor of Exeter and president of Universities UK, said: "Universities make strenuous efforts to seek out potential by looking at a number of factors when selecting students, but they cannot admit people who are not applying. "This is why schemes that provide
varied offers and seek out potential, as well as supporting applicants in preparing for higher education, can be so important. "
Only a handful of universities, including the London School of Economics, University College London, Warwick and Queen Mary, London, have held out against favoring whole categories of applicants although all four give extra individual recognition to candidates who have succeeded against the odds. Birmingham, Southampton and the medical school at King's College London, set aside places for students at comprehensives in their regions. The Access to Birmingham scheme, which this year will admit 193 students--4% of the intake--gives candidate lower offers on condition they complete courses to prepare them for higher education.
The expression "social mobility" used in the passage mainly means that______.
(A) private and grammar school pupils go to study in comprehensive schools
(B) state school pupils go to study in private and grammar schools
(C) talented students from underachieving schools are admitted to top universities
(D) students from all sorts of schools are treated equally in university admission
A major concern of the head of the Lady Eleanor Holles school is______.
(A) how to implement social mobility in university admission
(B) how to identify talented pupils from poor schools
(C) how to teach students from underachieving schools
(D) how to investigate the backgrounds of applicants
When Gillian Low gave the example of the student "at the low-performing school who is having private tuition", what she wanted to convey is______.
(A) students from underachieving schools should not have private tuition
(B) students from low-performing schools vary in their financial conditions
(C) students should be treated on an individual basis instead of "type of school"
(D) students' academic achievements are related to their economic conditions
All of the following can be found in universities' new entry schemes EXCEPT______.
(A) lowering the standard offer for a course if an applicant is from a poor school
(B) giving extra points to students from schools with poor average GCSE grades
(C) giving priority consideration to students from low-performing schools
(D) reserving places for applicants from poor schools at a fixed proportion
Which of the following CANNOT be true according to the passage?
(A) The London School of Economics, University College London, Warwick and Queen Mary, London,have not offered the new entry scheme.
(B) The majority of the British universities have agreed to give preferential treatment to students from low-performing comprehensives.
(C) The education in comprehensive schools is often poorer than that of private and grammar schools in Britain.
(D) British universities are allowed to adopt different approaches to enrol students from underachieving comprehensive schools.